The beauty of crystals

What are crystals?

Their composition both chemical and metaphysical

Crystals or GemStones?

Based on scientific information given by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.

A gemstone is a crystalline mineral that can be cut and polished to make jewellery and other ornaments. The ancients Greeks made a distinction between precious and semiprecious gems, which survives to this day. Precious stones were hard, rare, and valuable. The only “precious” gemstones are diamond, ruby, sapphire, and emerald. All other quality stones are called semiprecious, even though they may not be less valuable or beautiful. Today, mineralogists and gemologists describe stones in technical terms, including their chemical composition, Mohs hardness, and crystal structure.

Here is a list of important gemstones, with photographs and their key characteristics.

  • The blue colour print represents the hardness according to the Mohs scale
  • The red colour print represents the chemical composition of the gem
  • The green colour print represents the shape of the crystal

Mohs hardness | mineralogy | Britannica › … › Earth Sciences

Mohs hardness, rough measure of the resistance of a smooth surface to scratching or abrasion, expressed in terms of a scale devised (1812) by the German mineralogist Friedrich Mohs. The Mohs hardness of a mineral is determined by observing whether its surface is scratched by a substance of known or defined hardness

The shapes of crystals given below are explained here

It’s interesting to note that it is impurities in the crystal that can result in the different colours of the same named crystal for example I always think of a topaz as being blue, however I have seen many yellow topaz.

Also crystals can be ‘colour enhanced’ and this includes the blue topaz above. Many people are unaware of this but, having also studied colour therapy, there could be an argument to say colour enhances, therefore adding another dimension of the vibration – the additional vibration of the added colour!

We are all individuals with an individual vibration. The same can be said for crystals – they are all individual with individual vibrations. You may have 3 identical crystals to choose from and one feel right, with the other two feeling OK but not quite the same!

My courses contains information from a great number of sources and you may well find that some information is contradictory. The same can be said for metaphysical properties of crystals. Again, don’t worry, just go with what feels right for you.


Agate is cryptocrystalline silica, chemical formula of SiO2. It is often displayed in slices. It is characterized by rhombohedral microcrystals. Mohs hardness ranging from 6.5 to 7. Chalcedony is one example of gemstone quality agate. Onyx and banded agate are other examples.

Comforting, enhances concentration; Truth finder.


Alexandrite – Chrysoberyl is a gemstone made of beryllium aluminate; Its chemical formula is BeAl2O4. Chrysoberyl belongs to the orthorhombic crystal system. Mohs hardness of 8.5. It can be green, red, or orange-yellow.

Increased self esteem to bring about change

Baltic Amber

Amber – it’s organic fossilized tree resin. It’s usually golden or brown in colour and may contain inclusions of plants or small animals. Generally, the chemical formula of amber consists of repeating isoprene (C5H8) units.

Healing and protection, enhances kindness; past lives


Amethyst is a purple variety of quartz, which is silica or silicon dioxide, with the quartz chemical formula of SiO2. The violet colour comes from iron impurities. It has a Mohs scale hardness of around 7.

Protection – activates spiritual and psychic enhancement. One of the Master Crystals.

Apatite stone

Apatite is a soft blue-green gem; a phosphate mineral with the chemical formula Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH). The mineral has hexagonal crystal system. Gems may be transparent or a bluey green; occasionally other colours. It has a Mohs hardness of 5.

Enhances knowledge and truth


Emerald is the green gemstone form of the mineral beryl. It has a chemical formula of (Be3Al2(SiO3)6). Emerald has a hexagonal crystal structure and is very hard, with a rating of 7.5 to 8 on the Mohs scale.

Enhances unconditional love


Garnet describes any crystal of silicate mineral. Their chemical composition varies but may be generally described as X3Y2(SiO4)3. Garnet occurs in almost all colours, but blue is extremely rare. Its crystal structure may be a cubic or rhombic dodecahedron, belonging to the isometric crystal system. Garnet ranges from 6.5 to 7.5.

Enhances insight and imagination


Opal is a soft silicate gemstone: hydrated amorphous silica, with a hardness of around Mohs 5.5 – 6 and the chemical formula (SiO2·nH2O). It may contain from 3% to 21% water by weight. Opal is classified as a mineraloid rather than mineral. The internal structure causes the gemstone to diffract light, potentially producing a rainbow of colours.

Aids balance, connects to your higher self


Pearl is an organic gemstone produced by a mollusk. Like amber, a pearl is an organic material and not a mineral. Chemically, it is calcium carbonate, CaCO3. It is soft, with a hardness of around 2.5 to 4.5 on the Mohs scale.

Represents serenity and wisdom


Peridot is a green gemstone. It is the name given to gem-quality olivine, which has the chemical formula (Mg, Fe)2SiO4. This green silicate mineral gets its colour from magnesium. While most gems occur in different colours, peridot is only found in shades of green. It has a Mohs hardness of around 6.5 to 7 and belongs to the orthorhombic crystal system.

Reduces stress and accelerates personal growth


Quartz is a silicate mineral with the repeating chemical formula SiO2. It is found in either the trigonal or hexagonal crystal system. Colours range from colourless to black. Hardness is around 7. Quartz are often named by its colour, which it owes to various element impurities. Common forms of quartz gemstone include rose quartz (pink), amethyst (purple), and citrine (golden). Pure quartz is also known as rock crystal

An ‘all round’ positive, amplifier and transmitter od ‘good vibes’


Ruby – Pink to red gemstone-quality corundum is called ruby. Its chemical formula is Al2O3Cr. The chromium gives ruby its colour. Ruby has a trigonal crystal system and a Mohs hardness of 9.

Promotes tranquillity and integrity


Sapphire is any gem quality of the aluminium oxide mineral corundum which is not red. (see Ruby) Sapphires are often blue, they can be colourless to any other colour. Colours are due to trace amounts of iron, copper, titanium, chromium, or magnesium. The chemical formula of sapphire is (α-Al2O3). Its crystal system is trigonal. Corundum is hard, around 9.

Enhances psychic abilities


Topaz is a silicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F,OH)2. It belongs to the orthorhombic crystal system, hardness 8. We tend to think of Topaz as blue however it can be colourless or nearly any colour, depending on impurities.

Soothing, peaceful and tranquilizing


Tourmaline is a boron silicate gemstone that may contain any of a number of other elements, giving it a chemical formula of (Ca,K,Na,(Al,Fe,Li,Mg,Mn)3(Al,Cr, Fe,V)6(BO3)3(Si,Al,B)6O1(OH,F)4. It forms trigonal crystals and is 7 to 7.5. on Mohs scale. Tourmaline is usually black but can also be colourless and other colours

Enhances sensitivity by dispelling fear and negativity


Zircon comes in a wide range of colours. Zircon is a zirconium silicate gemstone, with the chemical formula of (ZrSiO4). It is tetragonal in shape with a Mohs hardness of 7.5. Zircon can be colourless or any colour, depending on any impurities.

Calms emotions; helps to manifest your higher self


Turquoise is an opaque gem, often seen in shades of blue, green, and yellow. Like pearl, turquoise is an opaque gemstone. A blue to green (sometimes yellow) mineral consisting of hydrated copper and aluminium phosphate. Its chemical formula is CuAl6(PO4)4(OH)8·4H2O belonging to the triclinic crystal system being a relatively soft gem, with a hardness of 5 to 6.

Master healer and protector